Conquering the human genome

Today we are opening a new era in human biology and medicine. Two rival teams of scientists this week present their first interpretations of the human genome, which is the set of encoded DNA instructions that specify a person.

A team, Celera Genomics, has compiled a list of parts of the proteins needed to make a person. The other team, a state-funded consortium, traced the story of how “junk” regions accumulated genome and found that small elements of the junk can play a useful role. They also discovered that human genes were obtained directly from bacteria. The two teams announced last they had assembled the human genome, but it will take a little longer to properly analyze the results.

The interpretation of the human genome

The identification of genes, their functions and controls, and how they relate to human physiology and disease – is expected in time to revolutionize medicine by clarifying the mechanism of many diseases and generating new tests and treatments .

Physically, the genome is tiny – two copies of it are packed in the core of every ordinary human cell, and each of them is about one-fifth the size of the smallest grain of dust that the eye can see . But the genome is vast in terms of informational content. Composed of chemical symbols designated by a four-letter alphabet of A, T, C, and G, the human genome is some 3.2 billion letters in length. If printed in standard characters, it would cover 75,490 pages of this newspaper.

The enormous task of decoding the genomic message began in 1990 and is now almost complete, although the versions of both genome teams are riddled with gaps.

With so much effort and scientific brilliance at stake, the members of each team remain highly critical of the other approach, believing that their own strategy for decoding the genome is likely to produce the better and more accurate version. Since June, however, both have had criticisms of inhibition and observe a limited truce. The pact called for a joint announcement, made at the White House on June 26 last year, that each party had finished assembling its version of the genome, and joint publication of their findings, which occurs later this week .

The joint publication, however, is about as separate as a union could be, with articles from each party appearing in rivals published scientific journals on different sides of the Atlantic. The results were to be announced tomorrow, but the embargo was lifted by the two journals after The Observer of London, it broke.

One team is a consortium of academic centers, primarily in the United States and Britain, but with members in France, Germany, China and Japan. The consortium is funded largely by the National Institutes of Health and the Wellcome Trust in London. His version of the human genome is described in a 62-page article in the journal Nature, based in London. The lead author is Dr. Eric Lander of the Whitehead Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts

The other team is led by Dr. J. Craig Venter, President of Celera Genomics in Rockville, Maryland His report is featured in a 48-page article in Washington-based Science.

Despite the many differences between the two teams, they largely agree on their findings on the human genome. It is their first glance at a genetic document of extraordinary strangeness and complexity. Nobody expected it to be understandable at first glance and both teams have so far mapped only the main features of its terrain.

Their main discovery is how many human genes there seem to be. Textbooks have long fixed the number of human genes at around 100,000, but with the sequence of units of the human genome in hand, the two teams found much less than expected. Dr. Venter says he has identified 26,588 genes encoding proteins for you and another 12,000 possible genes. The consortium says there are 30,000 to 40,000 human genes. Both parties prefer the lower end of their range, their gene discovery methods tend to predict more genes than they think exist.

The low number of human genes – say 30,000 – can be considered good for medicine because it means there are fewer genes to understand.

Know everything about water leaks

It should be noted that even a small leak could cause immeasurable damage to your building and even your water consumption. The first thing to do then, if you find some brands of leaks that you will not be able to detect, is to seek the services of a water leak locator to locate the problem before solving it. .

How to fix a water leak?

Know above all that a water leak could have various origins. It could be visible (at a tap, flush …) or invisible (pipes, pipes …). Of course, it is not essential to use a leak detector when you are able to repair it. A plumber can repair or modify the faulty installation if you can not do it. A water leak detection company will be able to meet all your needs without problem with its inspection camera which allows to find any type of leak .

But for the other case, invisible water leaks, that a specialist’s expertise will be needed to detect this leak. In the garden, a terrace, the living room or other place related to your home, this kind of leakage is usually manifested by the moisture of the floor or the nearest wall or the floor if the faulty piping is located the. And even if they are drops, these leaks can cost you a lot of money.

Water leaks, molds, bad smells … how to correct them?

The development of the technology currently allows the use of high-end tools for an efficient location of leaks. It is with the help of these equipments that they can realize the requested works without destroying a wall or damaging your tiling.

These materials will be most frequently equipped with cameras to have a view of the pipeline whatever the environment, even the most impractical sites. So if you think that the amount of your water bill is much higher than the amount used, it is recommended to use the services of a leak tracking company, these leaks will often be responsible for this overconsumption. In short, if you are looking for water leakage through a leak detector, proposed on the website eyetecinspections.fr.

The invention of the bra dates back to the Middle Ages

From the story of the Bra …

Austrian researchers have just highlighted an incredible discovery that has already turned upside down the history of fashion: Bras dating back to the Middle Ages 600 years before our time were found in very good condition.

Until now, it seemed established that the bra was born with the modern era, just after the golden age of the corset but it is obviously nothing! It seems that its use has been reinvented recently (convergence of invention) almost identical and that it disappeared for nearly six centuries, until proven otherwise …

While excavating an Austrian castle, the castle of Lengberg, that archaeologists from the University of Innsbruck have made a curious discovery under a floor of the house: 4 bras in perfect condition and that look like to be mistaken for the throats that are currently found in commerce.

Historians thought until then that the invention of the bra was dating back a hundred years. Moreover, this common name appears for the first time in a dictionary in 1904 (Larousse).

One of the pieces found at the castle of Lengberg is very close to a modern bra so much that one could think of a joke and lose his Latin.

A shake-up in the history of fashion

The conservation of the bras found is explained by the fact that they were stored under a floor of a room of the castle, in a very dry place and in the middle of not less than 2700 fragments of textiles and clothes that he had to sort and separate one by one. Among them, only 4 resemble bras, with well-separated caps and even two wide straps for one of them and obviously a belt in the back poorly preserved but easy to guess.

We also note that the piece of lingerie was not only made to hold the chest but also to embellish the body with finely decorated patterns (with the use of lace in particular). The garment therefore exceeds only the practical aspect but has been designed for the aesthetic side

Austrian researchers have also rediscovered what looks like a men’s underpants. This discovery is also very surprising since the panties represent in many civilization an element of male domination and power. It seems surprising that a lord wears this kind of underwear at this time.

These findings were made during 2008 and are now only released in the press, after many scientific analyzes and 14 carbon dating because in view of the importance of discovery, it was to be certain of the assertions and check each every detail. These advances are very important for understanding the evolution of fashion and dress in the ages and is a kind of missing link and allows us to better understand the mores of our ancestors (and thereby better to decipher ours ).