The luthier: the best friend of your instrument

A luthier, from the French word luth , manufactures or repairs stringed instruments. For those outside the world of violin making, the term could be more closely associated with acoustic guitar making, but people who make mandolins, banjos, violins, cellos, dancanons, ukuleles, and other stringed instruments are also luthiers .

The luthiers themselves sometimes have to distinguish between plucked or scraped string instruments and the making of instruments that are used with a bow. In some cases, the luthiers perform only the repair of the instruments, without having the capacity to manufacture them.

In our modern era of automated design, assembly lines and prefabricated products, luthiers stands out as old-world craftsmen. The art of making and repairing stringed instruments goes back to antiquity, evoking a love for music. The luthier is a musician’s best friend, keeping his string instrument in excellent condition to increase the instrument’s life and maintain sound quality.

Many non-professional musicians playing music for personal pleasure may not be aware that luthiers exist or that instruments can (and should) be adjusted over time. The constant tension of the wood created by the strings, the environmental factors and other circumstances can combine to slowly push an instrument towards a deterioration This reduces by a factor known as playability, but a visit to the luthier is all that is necessary to give a personal mark to an instrument

Luthiers can also repair many types of physical damage. A common type of damage is a bumpy soundboard (at the top of the guitar), or at the back. It is often a physical trauma that crossed the finish line of the instrument and entered the wood. A luthier can clean, seal, patch and finish for the damaged area.

If the buzz strings, if the action is at the top, if a precious or sentimental instrument is damaged, or if your instrument has spent years in the closet, a luthier is the person to call . Under his supervision, your instrument will find all its charm. Often, professionals buy top of the range guitars and will immediately bring it to the luthier for this one he puts a personalized touch by improving certain points such as the height between the strings and the neck.

Music stores routinely provide luthier services to provide a complementary service to their customers who purchase instruments. If you instrument is valuable to you, you should perhaps check the sources of your instrument maker. Often small workshops are the best compared to big box stores. It is also worth paying a little more expensive to have the services of a very experienced luthier, if your instrument is important to you.

The history of parcel delivery in the United States

Parcel delivery is the shipment of parcels by mail at higher value than single shipments. While the service is provided by most postal systems, private delivery services also exist in competition and set up in the main public postal services.

Parcel delivery in the United States

Private parcel services have occurred in the United States partly due to dissatisfaction with the US Post Office, whose rates are frequently inflated due to the monopoly it held on the post and the appointment of postmasters jobs with political patronage. In 1852, Wells Fargo was the first company formed to provide both banking and express services. These have hand in hand, as gold handling in California and other financial issues required a secure method to transport them across the country. From 1869 the mail service began to use the train as a means of transport thanks to its high speed.

In 1913, road freight services rose quickly with the advent of petrol trucks. United Parcel Service had its origins in this era, first as a private courier service. The general improvement of the road network after the Second World War led to its expansion into a national service, and other similar services appeared.

Airmail was designed early, and scheduled service began in 1918. Airlines transported high value and perishable goods from the beginning. The most important progress, however, came with the “hub and spoke,” a system developed by Federal Express (now known as FedEx) in 1973. With deregulation in 1977, they were able to set up an air-based system capable of delivering packages overnight in most countries. In response, the postal service launched a comparable express mail service. The irony of fate, in the same period, they also began a contract with Amtrak to transport the mail by rail. So, at the beginning of the 21st century,

The role of parcel shipping groups

The continued growth of businesses and consumers (B2C) and e-commerce has increased the demand for low-cost packet shipping services. The demand for cheap parcel shipping is particularly intense for online retailers and catalogs. These merchants, many of whom ship mostly low-priced merchandise, face consumers who resist paying exorbitant shipping costs (often pushed upward by fuel surcharges, residential delivery charges, etc.). for the delivery of parcels to their home.

Large parcel carriers, such as United Parcel Service (UPS) and FedEx, often include a table of ancillary fees (such as fuel and residential supplements) in addition to their usual fees. The US Postal Service (USPS) offers inexpensive solutions for the delivery of small parcels at home, such as the Select Parcel and the Parcel Post. However, many merchants prefer low-cost shipping options without sacrificing the visibility of their transit parcels (“track and trace”). The US Postal Service does offer a limited “delivery confirmation” as their lowest cost parcel delivery services, but more robust tracking is currently available only for express mail service and international services. Instead of that,

Wedding dress accessories for the bride

Once you have chosen your wedding dress , go to the choice of accessories. This choice is of great importance, so it should be given enough time.

The veil remains an original accessory although some people sulk. You can choose a mid-length or trailing sail. If you choose the latter, try to choose caring children to hold it and avoid those who could crush you and that will damage your hairstyle afterwards.

If you opt for a hat, consult a specialist and try many models. But if you make this choice you should have a hat head or avoid it altogether.

You can also opt for head jewelry that is very used for the royal look they give especially for long hair. To have a natural effect; also think of a wreath of flowers.

As for gloves, take long if you wear a sleeveless dress or with short sleeves and short ones if the sleeves are longer.

For jewelery, take rather sober jewels to not detract from the shine of the dress and the ring the two things that must be really highlighted. You can put a chain and a light bracelet or thin earrings. By cons, if you decide to wear a simple outfit highlight your jewelry and accessories.

The bag is optional as an accessory and can be bulky especially with the bouquet. You can also think of the umbrella which is an accessory with a unique charm especially if you wear a traditional style dress.

So if you want more details visit this page.

Choose your shoes according to the tone and fabric of your dress. The most important thing in choosing shoes is that they are comfortable. Also plan to wear ballerinas at the end of the evening to enjoy every moment of your party.

The Pantheon Editions at the price of the best new CROUS

Jeoffroy Delépine, CEO of the Editions du Pantheon, was for the second year in a row president of the jury of the CROUS de Paris news contest. He returns to this event celebrating the creative writing of the authors of tomorrow, the students.

How was this awards evening held?
Ioffroy Delépine of the Editions of the Pantheon 
 : The evening was held at 12, rue de l’Abbaye in the sixth arrondissement of Paris. The four members of the jury and I were gathered at the CNOUS “Cultural Center of the 1969 Abbey”. Present as CEO of the Editions du Pantheon the figure of the publisher, by the authority it imposes, brings a recognition of the literary milieu to the winning texts. Natacha Deygas represented the CROUS cultural service in Paris. Dominique Barbéris embodied both the figure of the teacher and that of the writer. Yann Migoubert, meanwhile, represented the University of the Sorbonne, he is the head of the cultural service. Finally, Hervé Gardette symbolized the bodies of information since he is the media manager of France Culture Radio.

The manuscripts were to be sent before March 16, 2012. In the meantime, we became aware of the hundred or so news corresponding to the criteria defined by the conditions of participation and collected by the cultural service throughout the second semester. We then confronted our opinions, argued, deliberated and finally, voted.
We chose to reward Lise Menalque for The Howling , Alexia Luquet with The Opener , and Elio Possoz for The Great Festival . It’s Sarah Ghoula with a sick flowerwho broke away for the first prize, delivering us a text marked by great sensitivity. These students have distinguished themselves by their mastery of the genre, since every word must count to bring us to the fall of history. The different levels of reading presented by the new awards have been particularly noticed. Finally, considering the theme of the year, which was difficult to think outside the box, originality was a determining point.


Who are these young authors and what can they hope for?
The CEO of Editions du Pantheon
 They all come from very different sectors of the universities of the Paris region. Some pursue a course of modern letters, history, European law or comparative literature. They are truly young writers with a promising talent. If literature fascinates them, they must persevere and continue in this way. The first are now qualified to participate in the final straight that is the national competition. This time, their texts will be confronted with the best news selected on all French campuses. This prize will be awarded soon. The winner will be rewarded with a check for € 2,000, and the second for € 1,500. To celebrate what is above all a feast of words and writing, the best texts will be the subject of an edited collection. This last bonus is an important incentive to continue writing. It ensures a first recognition of the editorial environment, which can be worth argument with a future publisher.


Could you tell us more about the origins of this contest and the conditions of participation?
Les Editions du Panthéon
  : The CNOUS has always supported artistic initiatives among all students and all amateurs. This is even more true since the 2000s. The network of academic works organizes every year several national competitions to promote different artistic fields. Thus the CROUS of Lille took the initiative to create a new contest. In the same way, the regional university branches of Besançon, Orléans-Tours, or Clermont-Ferrand organized competitions relating to photography, comics or short films. Each academy then relayed these initiatives to see a national final.
Each year a theme is defined and common to all competitions. This year, it was the theme of “student life”. Students and the general public were to submit their news by March 16 at the latest. The compositions of the other disciplines were due on May 15th. In the case of the short story, the main formal constraint was not to exceed 2,500 words, the story must be brief. This one should have only few characters. The narrative frame had to be built around a single strong point. The work had to be completely original, that is to say unpublished, and must include a title. Every year, the details, the stylistic constraints, the rules and the registration form are available in the CROUS cultural services, on their websites or on the CNOUS website.


How are the Editions of the Pantheon facing this competition? What are the values ​​that the house defends?
  : The Editions of the Pantheon are a publishing house of books specialized in the general literature. They have varied collections, from the novel to the testimony. It is also a very important home from a university point of view because it is important for us to transmit knowledge and knowledge through the essays, theses and memoirs we publish. We always want to highlight the new talents of writing. In this context, we work with many students, professors and academics.

The collection that holds us, in this context, particularly at heart is of course that of our “tales and news”. This contest is important because it arouses passions for writing and words, especially among young people. This event contributes to the birth of a new generation of writers, talents and writers. The Editions du Pantheon support, therefore, any structure that promotes the desire to write and the sharing of its work with readers.

The guide for successful funerals

According to most sources, the cost of a burial is one of the three or four most expensive consumer purchases in their lifetime. Basic traditional funerals can cost more than $ 10,000. Although it is very expensive, there is no reason to believe that paying so much for a funeral shows how much you loved the deceased.

Many funeral directors or funeral homes will not tell you that you can have a completely legitimate funeral, with a nice casket, for less than $ 2,500. A number of cheap funeral homes can provide you with all essential services for under $ 2,000, and these funerals provide the same sense of memory as the more expensive ones. They can even be considered as a more appropriate way to honor significantly the spirit of the deceased.

When it comes to funeral expenses, you absolutely have to shop around and find the best prices. You may want to find a trusted funeral home to help you in your decisions, but you must remember that they will have their own interests in your purchases and that might not lead you to the best value. The cost of the funeral is not related to how much you care or respect the deceased. You do not have to negotiate with someone who tries to guilt you out of control in this way.

Be ready to go outside the tradition . Is it necessary to have a visiting right and a service falls? Can you combine the two services into one? Or maybe you could have a visiting and service right at the same time and have family only at the grave. Think about what is comfortable for you and your family and do not be afraid to break the norm.

See if a military burial is an option . If the deceased was a military veteran or married to one, they may be eligible for veterans’ funeral benefits. The burial at the cemetery of a veteran is much cheaper than in a public cemetery.

Use your church membership privileges . Many churches have cemeteries on their property. Due to lack of space, some churches limit their burial sites to church members and their immediate families. The use of the church hall / shrine for funeral services should be much cheaper than renting a funeral home.

Think of the cremation . While some people are against the religion of cremation, if it is not a problem, it saves a little money and becomes very popular.

Funerals are expensive. There is no way around this fact. Whenever possible, always try to get more than one estimate from a funeral home for the cost of the necessary funeral service. Prices can vary considerably between different funeral homes. A local funeral home is generally more affordable, and gives a better service than national franchises. All funeral homes in America are required by federal law to provide everyone with a written price for all funeral services and related products that they offer. This is known as the general price list, or GPL. The cost of the funeral will depend on the type of funeral services and the options you choose.

When determining the actual price of a funeral service, there are several things that need to be put in place before hand. Know your rights as a consumer. The funeral laws are not the same in every state and it is very useful to know what elements are required by law for a funeral service and the elements that are added as extras and are not required by the state laws.

Much of the cost of the funeral will depend on the type of casket you select. The costs can have a wide range of prices (usually runs between $ 395 and $ 10,000 plus tax). In the price ranges, there are services that are provided such as the maintenance of the parcel, the tombstone, the use of the funeral home for service instead, etc.

You do not have to spend a small fortune to have a good funeral service worthy, whether it be a funeral service or a funeral cremation service. Do not leave yourself or your family feeling obligated to order additional items or services that you feel are unnecessary. Prices must be fair compared to other funeral homes in the area. Remember, some of the larger companies are chains owned by funeral homes exchanges under several different names and it can be very difficult to tell the difference between an independent family funeral home and a chain owned by the funeral business. Corporations usually keep the family name of the funeral home, so be sure to ask if it is owned by the family,

A funeral director will guide you through the entire funeral procedure. Funeral directors can help to obtain copies of the deceased’s death certificate, write an obituary, help you follow religious observances, contact social security, make arrangements with a crematorium, etc. Unless you have made arrangements in advance, you will probably be forced to choose a funeral home quickly and emotionally. Try to get a recommendation from a trusted friend or clergyman.

The funeral rule

  • The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the national consumer protection agency and executor of the funeral ruler. The funeral rule allows consumers to compare prices between funeral homes and select the services of the house in which you want to use without having to buy a “package” of any kind. Among its other benefits and protections, this rule ensures that anyone who calls or visits a funeral home must be given a price list of all services.
  • The funeral rule also provides the following protections:
  1. Buy only the funeral arrangements you want : You do not have to buy a “bundle” of goods and services from a funeral home. You can buy funeral goods, such as a coffin, from an outside supplier and the funeral home must use it. You can pay for a memorial service and direct burial, but no embalming. It’s yours. Embalming is necessary in some states and in certain situations. If the funeral states that he is legally bound to your state or specific situation, they must provide the law that relates to the specific law.
  2. Get the price over the phone or in an office : Funeral directors must give you price information over the phone if you ask for it. The funeral home can not ask for your name, address or phone before giving you the prices.
  3. Get the price list before you see the coffins : Coffins are very expensive, and the less scrupulous funeral homes will force you to buy the most elaborate. Ask for the list of coffins prices before looking at the showroom .
  4. Receiving a written declaration before paying : The funeral home must provide you with a list of the items you have chosen and the total cost of these agreements.
  5. Use an alternative container for cremation : Funeral homes and crematoriums should provide alternative containers made of chipboard, fibreboard or cardboard for the cremation process. They can not force you to buy an urn from them. You can bring your own container for leftovers.
  6. Funeral arrangements without embalming : According to the FTC, no state law requires embalming. Some states only require a body to be embalmed or refrigerated if it is not buried or incinerated within a certain period of time.

Funeral expenses are divided into three basic categories:

  1. Fees for Basic Services for the Undertaker : There is a basic service charge that is allowed to be billed and you can not refuse to pay. This price includes the cost of securing death certificate copies of the deceased person, preparation of death notices, sheltering vestiges and coordination with third parties such as cemeteries or crematoria.
  2. Services and merchandise : These are optional costs related to the funeral and include things like coffins, embalming, transportation of the remains or using the funeral home for a memorial service or viewing, use of a hearse etc.
  3. Cash advances : These fees are billed by the funeral home for goods and services purchased from external providers on your behalf. These include things like flowers, death notices and fees for officiating clergy. If the funeral home can not give you an exact price for these initial services, they must provide you with a “good faith” estimate.

The biography of the group Sexion Assault

The Sexion assault group is currently one of the best on the hip hop scene in France with more than 350,000 copies sold, with the album “The school of vital points”. The group consists of eight members including Master Gims, Adams Diallo, JR, Lefa, Maska, Amos, Baby Joe and Dim ‘One. Initially, the group called 3 E prototype, is a collective of about twenty people, then in 2005, a first project: a mixtape “Middle Earth” was born with the help of producer Dawala Wati B. The years 2006 and 2007 mark on the one hand, the departure of three members of the group and on the other hand,, the release of their first clip:  History worse than true and Anti-Tecktonik. These two titles end up creating a controversy with the media. It is in 2009 that the group sexion of Assaut earns its full renown with the release thanks to two clips from the CD:  T’es Beast or What?  and  Wati Bon Son in feat with Dry. The big revelation of the group was made with the release in the bins in March 2010 of their first album, “The school of Vital points”. Three weeks later, the album is certified Golden Disc. The group’s career continues to climb over the years with the release in 2011 of an album “mixtage” titled Les Chroniques du 75: pending the Apogee. An album that has seen all these clips and has made over 100,000 copies. The group replicates in 2012 with the third excerpt of the climax with the title before it leaves in homage to the mother of JR, a title that met a huge success, sold from the first week to 66,000 copies, then certified gold disc, platinum disc and two months after platinum double disc. You can find free news of this group of rappers

Milly-la-Forêt: Discover a city steeped in history

Gallic origins

Milly la Foret in Essonne is an ancient town whose history began in 285 BC with the creation of the Village of Milly by Dryus (4 th King of Gaul). Later, it was transformed into druidic initiation center. A few centuries later, the Roman road was established allowing Milly to take advantage of trade flows and to play a major role on the territory of Essonne.

It was not until 52 BC that the Romans really got closer to Milly by setting up a Roman camp west of the city. All these movements in Gallic and Roman times have fortunately for our history left traces: Roman medals, gold coins with the effigy of Faustin of Rome and other vestiges were thus found.

A medieval epic

In 7 th century, the estate belonged to Milly Fulbert 1 st, who bequeathed it to his son Wulfram direction. The latter later decided to enter the orders. At his death, Charles Martel recovered the lands of Milly by adding them to the French royal domain.

From that date, the estate was handed over between the accounts, the nobles and the church. It is only in 1356 after the defeat of Poitiers that the city knew its first crises. It was ravaged by looters and partly destroyed by the English who took the city in 1371 (under the leadership of Edward Woodstock). It was not until 15 th century the area of the castle was rebuilt and the city was surrounded by fortifications. In 1497 Milly became the first relay of the royal road between Paris and Lyon.

All these times have left Milly many traces, including an architectural heritage out of the ordinary, some buildings are classified as a historic monument: The Chapel Saint-Blaise-des-Simples, The Castle, The hall …

A place to discover with family or friends

Take the time of a weekend in Essonne time to leave in the footsteps of our ancestors. Plunged in the heart of the most beautiful stories that have made this beautiful territory what it is today. With friends or family, you will make an undisguised pleasure to enjoy the benefits of the surrounding nature. Located about fifty kilometers from Paris, Milly-la-Forêt is a destination to be privileged to cut with the sometimes difficult stress of our Parisian capital.

To know more about the city of Milly-la-Forêt, go here:

How to choose a cat insurance?

Your kitten regularly falls ill? It may be time to think about getting insurance for a cat then! This saves a lot of hassle and expense, but you have to choose it carefully.

What’s the point of a mutual for a cat?

Like the health insurance for humans, the mutuals for the pets allow to cover the medical expenses of the insured animal without having to spend a fortune. Of course there are various levels of coverage for your pet that cost more or less depending on your needs and your means.

Important parameters to watch?

It is essential to check that your cat insurance covers all major veterinary expenses (vaccines, tattoo, cat collar , etc.) as well as large costly operations (intoxication, eye surgery, etc.). If you are really attached to your cat we also advise you to take out an insurance which will take care of the administrative formalities during the death of your cat in order to avoid you drowning in the paperwork during this difficult moment to live.

Some examples of good mutuals for pets?

There are a multitude of insurances and insurers various and varied offering almost an infinity of solutions: some cover for example the purchase of accessories. Therefore, it is quite difficult for a neophyte to find his way, which is why, even if it is better for you to choose a formulated adapted to your animal, we have selected some assurances that cover the necessary to a price more than reasonable.

First of all, there is the insurance of ECA insurance, which offers global coverage for a reduced price. But beware, this insurance does not cover your pet’s large operations at 100%, so be sure to plan a small cash.

The second fairly nice insurance is “Fidelio” which like that of ECA insurance offers a fairly comprehensive package for an attractive price.

Contemporary Art Gallery TOKADE: Paradise Place for Decorators

TOKADE Art Gallery 9 rue des Paradoux 31000 Toulouse, is the first gallery that had the incredible idea to gather hundreds of works of professional painter on the same platform. To highlight the artists and their works, the site allows each contemporary painter to exhibit and present twenty paintings in five imposed painting formats.

Accessible to all without exception the website, is a way to offer visitors and Internet users a human space where art is accessible to all. Indeed, whether we love art and decoration, contemporary art or modern art, the Tokade Gallery proposes to democratize them in all its forms. It requires more technical knowledge or sharp artistic culture to be able to enjoy and appreciate the artists who exhibit.

In all, there are nearly 500 works as original as each other and made by very talented artists who are exposed. Unique and authentic, the virtual and real gallery gives the opportunity to all to discover the exceptional talents of various painters and contemporary art sculptors. To give life to the brilliant idea of ​​democratizing art on the Internet, all artists present have all agreed to have their works authenticated. Each painting is unique and delivered with its signed certificate of authenticity. Known or emerging artists are rigorously selected by a selection committee for their originality, technique and approach. They all help to discover the diversity and richness of contemporary art.

Apart from the marketing of works of art, the Tokade Gallery is also for many artists: painters or sculptors, a showcase that allows them to discover to all the extent and diversity of their know-how. Figurative art, paintings and abstract sculptures, original paintings painted in acrylics or in oil … a wide choice of works of art is available. Very innovative, this gallery does not hesitate to mark the difference and the limits without daring to cross the politically correct. In fact, the rather cold and taciturn atmosphere of the majority of art galleries disappears as soon as you set foot there.

Paradise place for decorators, Tokade is undoubtedly the gallery to see absolutely to find authentic decorative ideas adapted to the needs. Indeed, as a specialist in modern art, the gallery offers paintings and sculptures of different sizes. Large size paintings are suitable for large spaces, and medium or small are really perfect to revive the color of a living room or bedroom.

As for prices, markets its works at very affordable prices. Art objects such as paintings or contemporary paintings are for example offered at 49 euros minimum. As for contemporary art sculptures, they are accessible from 50 euros.

Very famous among the art galleries of major French cities, such as Paris, Lyon and Marseille, the gallery is located in Toulouse, in the district of Carmes. She now appears as a must-see gallery in the Pink City.

Pest control of exterminators

One of the most difficult problems that apartment and building management companies face is pest infestation. In the vast majority of buildings built before 1980, one of the units will eventually have parasitic problems. These problems are a real scourge, especially in cities where insects are very present like Montreal or Mexico.

Integrated pest control for flats

Apartment managers should consider implementing an integrated pest management program as soon as the building starts. Integrated pest management is a step-by-step approach that is proving to be very effective. Instead of just spraying insecticide, a thorough review is done first to determine the best course of action. Here are the steps that must be followed:


Inspect the environment. Try to determine where the pests have come in and why they are coming. Is there a crack or crevice they use? Is there a moisture problem? Are the sanitary conditions adequate?


Identifying pests is a very important step. If you are not sure which type of insect you have found, contact your local pest management office and ask for insect identification to be done (staff at these facilities are generally very knowledgeable about pests in their area). region). Rodents are usually easily identified by looking at photos of the pests for comparison purposes and by the region where they are. If this step is skipped or the harmful pest is misidentified, pest management may fail.


Monitor areas that are suspected of being infested. Put platelets or spring traps for rodents and small insects. This will help identify which places should be treated.


All entry points found during the inspection must be considered. Cracks and crevices can be sealed with a Stuf-Fit copper braid or black polyurethane foam. Sealing beads around doors and windows should be replaced. The seals on the windows should be replaced if tiny insects are able to crawl through. Also, caulk around skirting boards and cracks around door and window frames to prevent insects from entering the apartment through the walls.


Many rodents and insects are attracted to areas where sanitation is not adequate. Sanitary areas such as the bathroom should be kept clean and regularly cleaned. Indoor garbage cans should be emptied and washed often as mildew can easily settle. Mold is one of the main reasons for the appearance of parasites that exterminators have to deal with. Counters and floors should be properly cleaned daily, especially if any damage occurs. It is important that shrubs and plants are well maintained to eliminate rodent animals such as mice or squirrels. Any moisture conditions such as leaking pipes or poor drainage should be checked.


Depending on the type of parasites you will have to deal with, there are many methods. For example, for small insects such as ants, the extermination specialists use the majority of the time as a simple insecticide. However, when your home is totally invaded and insecticides are no recourse, the exterminators can use more radical techniques such as thermal tents.

Because of the ease with which pests can move between units and buildings, it is of utmost importance to inspect and treat each unit of the building, but if there is no suspicion of infiltration. A written report must be provided to tenants explaining what the exterminator intends to do, what type of chemicals or traps are used and where traps or insecticides have been placed. Instructions, precautions or suggestions should be left on the report as well.

Inform staff and tenants about procedures

All building staff and tenants need to be aware of the procedures that will be put in place to deal with pests. The team of exterminators is very knowledgeable and has a lot of experience. For example, if the building has 40 units, the exterminator will have to go from door to door to reassure the tenants and especially, to indicate the different steps to follow in order to counter the parasitic problem they face.